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montecasino com The rebuilt Abbey of Monte Cassino Monte Cassino sometimes written Montecassino is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres 81 mi southeast ofin theItaly, 2 kilometres 1.
Site of the Roman town ofit is best known for its abbey, the first house of the montecasino com, having been established by himself around 529.
It was for the community of Monte Cassino that the was composed.
The first monastery on Monte Cassino was sacked by the invading around 570 and abandoned.
Of the first monastery almost nothing is known.
The second monastery was established by around 718, at the suggestion of Pope and with the support of the Lombard Duke.
It was directly subject to the pope and many monasteries in Italy were under its authority.
In 883 the monastery was sacked by and abandoned again.
The community of monks resided first at and then from 914 at before the monastery was rebuilt in 949.
During the period of exile, the were introduced into the community.
The 11th and 12th centuries were the abbey's golden age.
It acquired a large secular territory around Monte Cassino, the so-called "Land of Saint Benedict"which it heavily fortified with.
It maintained good relations with theeven receiving patronage from.
It encouraged fine art and craftsmanship by employing Byzantine and even Saracen artisans.
In 1057, Pope recognised the abbot of Monte Cassino as having precedence over all other abbots.
Many monks rose to become bishops and cardinals, and three popes were drawn from the abbey: 1057—581086—87 and 1118—19.
During this period was written by two of its own, Cardinal and who also compiled the.
By the 13th century, the monastery's decline had set in.
In 1239, the Emperor garrisoned troops in it during his war with the Papacy.
In 1322, Pope elevated the abbey into a bishopric but this was suppressed in 1367.
The buildings were destroyed by an earthquake in 1349, and in 1369 Pope demanded a contribution from all Benedictine monasteries to fund the rebuilding.
In 1454 the abbey was placed and in 1504 was made subject to the in Padua.
In 1799, Monte Cassino was sacked again by French troops during the.
The abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in 1866.
The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures.
In 1944 during it this web page the site of the and the building was destroyed by Allied bombing.
It was rebuilt after the war.
After the reforms of the the monastery was one of the few remaining within the.
On 23 October 2014, Pope applied the norms of the Ecclesia Catholica of 1976 to the abbey, removing from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and reducing its spiritual jurisdiction to the abbey itself—while retaining its status as a territorial abbey.
The former territory of the Abbey, except the learn more here on which the abbey church and monastery sit, was transferred to the.
It was the Volsci who first built a citadel サンタクローストラブルでオンラインゲームをプレイ the summit of Monte Cassino.
The Volsci in more info area were defeated by the Romans in 312 B.
The Romans renamed the settlement and built a temple to Apollo at the citadel.
Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, and a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Romans had there.
Generations after the Roman Empire adopted Christianity the town became the seat of a in the fifth century A.
Lacking strong defences the area was subject to barbarian attack and became abandoned and neglected with only a few struggling inhabitants holding out.
The biography records that the area was still largely at the time; Benedict's first act was to smash the sculpture of Apollo and destroy the altar.
He then reused the temple, dedicating it toand built another chapel on the site of the altar dedicated to Saint.
Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict's seizure of Monte Cassino: "Now the citadel called Casinum is located on the side of a high mountain.
The mountain shelters this citadel on a broad bench.
Then it rises three miles above it as if its peak tended toward heaven.
There was an ancient temple there in which Apollo used to be worshipped according to the old pagan rite by the foolish local farmers.
Around it had grown up a grove dedicated to demon worship, where even at that time a wild crowd still devoted themselves to unholy sacrifices.
He built a chapel dedicated to St.
Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St.
John where the altar of Apollo had stood.
And he summoned the people of the district to the faith by his unceasing preaching.
In one story, Satan invisibly sits on a rock making it too heavy to remove until Benedict drives him off.
In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and then collapses a wall on a young monk, who is brought back to life by Benedict.
Pope Gregory also relays that the monks found a pagan idol of bronze when digging at the site which when thrown into the kitchen gave the illusion of a fire until dispelled by Benedict.
Archaeologist notes that it was common in such for the protagonist to encounter areas of strong paganism.
Benedict scholar Terrence Kardong examines why Benedict did not face stiffer opposition in his seizure of the site from the local pagans.
He contrasts this with the 25-year struggle faced by St.
Martin of Tours in western Gaul by pagans angry at his attacks on their shrines: "By the time of Benedict, paganism was in a weaker condition in western Europe than it had been in Martin's time.
And, of course, it must be remembered that Martin as a bishop was a much more prominent churchman than Benedict.
This was an isolated and unusual episode in Benedict's monastic career.
Martin, however, was thrust out of his monastery into the role of a missionary bishop in the fourth century.
Benedict's violence against a pagan holy place recalls both Martin's assault against pagan shrines generations before and the Biblical story of conquering Israel entering the Holy Land see Exodus 34:12-14.
De Vogue writes "this mountain had to be conquered from an idolatrous people and purified from its devilish horrors.
And like conquering Israel, Benedict came precisely to carry out this purification.
No doubt Gregory had this biblical model uppermost in his mind, as is clear from the terms he uses to describe the work of destruction.
At the same time, neither Gregory nor Benedict could have forgotten the similar line of action taken by St.
Martin read more the pagan shrines of Gaul.
In his earlier setting Benedict "had twice shown complete mastery over his aggressiveness, Benedict is now allowed to use it without restraint in the service of God.
Where Satan concealed himself behind underlings at Subiaco, at Monte Cassino he drops the masks to enter into a desperate attempt to prevent an abbey from being built, and "that the sole cause of this eruption of satanic action is the suppression of pagan worship on the high places.
Martin is dominant — with the resistance of Satan substituting for Martin's outraged pagan populace.
Unlike the stories that may have influenced Pope Gregory's structure of the biography, Benedict's victories are practical, preventing Satan from stopping work on the abbey at Monte Cassino.
Benedict's prayers are portrayed as the driving force behind the building of the abbey and the triumphs over Satan, through prayer "Benedict the monk wrests from the devil a well-determined base which he never leaves.
He wrote the that became the founding principle for Westernreceived a visit fromking of the perhaps in 543, the only remotely secure historical date for Benedictand died there.
According to accounts, "Benedict died in the oratory of St.
Martin, and was buried in the oratory of St.
Benedict mandated the moral obligations to care for the sick.
So in Monte Cassino St.
Benedict founded a hospital that is considered today to have been the first in Europe of the new era.
The monastic routine called for hard work.
The care of the sick was such an important duty that those caring for them were enjoined to act as if they served Christ directly.
Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at nearby Subiaco about 64 km to the east of Romewhere hospitals were settled, too, as adjuncts to the monasteries to provide charity.
Soon many monasteries were founded throughout Europe, and everywhere there were hospitals like those in Monte Cassino.
Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict's construction was confirmed by archaeological discoveries made after the destruction of 1944.
Adalbert de Vogüé recounts that "Traces have been found of the oratories of St.
Martin and of St.
John the Baptist, with additions from the eighth and eleventh centuries, together with their pre-Christian cellars.
The first one which Benedict built in the temple itself was only twelve meters long and eight wide.
From this, we can infer a fairly small community.
The second oratory, on the mountain-top, where the pagan altar had stood in the open air, was of the same width but somewhat longer 15.
Its prominent site has always made it an object of strategic importance.
It was sacked or destroyed a number of times.
During this time the body of St Benedict was transferred to Fleury, the modern near Orleans, France.
A flourishing period of Monte Cassino followed its re-establishment in read article bywhen among the monks wereson of ;predecessor of the great Lombard Duke and King ; andthe historian of the Lombards.
In 744, a donation of created thethe secular lands of the abbacy, which were subject to the abbot and nobody else save the Pope.
Thus, the monastery became the capital of a state comprising a compact and strategic region between the Lombard and the city-states of the coast, and.
In 884 sacked and then burned it down, and Abbot was killed during the attack.
Among the great historians who worked at the monastery, in this period there iswhose Historia Langobardorum Beneventanorum is a fundamental chronicle of the ninth-century.
Monks caring for the patients in Monte Cassino constantly needed new medical knowledge.
So they began to buy and collect medical and other books by Greek, Roman, Islamic, Egyptian, European, Jewish, and Oriental authors.
As Naples is situated on the crossroad of many seaways of Europe, Middle East and Asia, soon the monastery library was one of the richest in Europe.
All the knowledge of the civilizations of all the times and nations was accumulated in the Abbey of that time.
The Benedictines translated into Latin and transcribed precious manuscripts.
The number of monks rose to over two hundred, and the library, the manuscripts produced in the and the school of became famous throughout the West.
The unique flourished there during Desiderius' abbacy.
Monks reading and copying the medical texts learnt a lot about human anatomy and methods of treatment, and then put their theoretic skills into practice at monastery hospital.
By the 10-11th centuries Monte Cassino became the most famous cultural, educational, and medical center of Europe with great library in Medicine and other sciences.
Many physicians came there for medical and other knowledge.
That is why the first in the world was soon opened in nearby which is considered today to have been the earliest Institution of Higher Education in Western Europe.
This school found its original base in the Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino still in the 9th century and later settled down in Salerno.
So, Montecassino and Benedictines played a great role in the progress of medicine and science in the Middle Ages, and with his life and work St.
Benedict himself exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture and helped Europe to emerge from the "dark night of history" that followed the fall of the Roman empire.
The buildings of the monastery were reconstructed in the 11th century on a scale of great magnificence, artists being brought from Amalfi, Lombardy, and even to supervise the various works.
The abbey church, rebuilt this web page decorated with the utmost splendor, was consecrated in 1071 by.
A detailed account of the abbey at this date exists in the Chronica monasterii Cassinensis by and gives us our best source on the early in the south.
Abbot Desiderius sent envoys to Constantinople montecasino com time after 1066 to hire expert for the decoration of the rebuilt abbey church.
According to chronicler the Greek artists decorated the apse, the arch and the vestibule of the basilica.
Their work was admired by contemporaries but was totally destroyed in later centuries except two fragments depicting greyhounds now in the Monte Cassino Museum.
Architectural historian believed that Desiderius' rebuilding included pointed arches, and served as a major influence in the nascent development of.
Abbot visited Monte Cassino in 1083, and five years later he began to build the third church atwhich then included pointed arches and became a major turning point in medieval architecture.
An earthquake damaged the Abbey click here 1349, and although the site was rebuilt it marked the beginning of a long period of decline.
That situation montecasino com reversed bya Benedictine, in 1367.
In 1505 the monastery was joined with that of St.
From the dissolution of the Italian monasteries in 1866, Monte Cassino became a national monument.
Monte Cassino in ruins after bombing in February 1944.
During the in the of January—May 1944 the Abbey was heavily damaged.
The German military forces had established the 161-kilometre 100-milein order to prevent Allied troops from advancing northwards.
The abbey itself however, was not initially utilised by the German troops as part of their fortifications, owing to General 's regard for the historical monument.
The Gustav Line stretched from the to the coast in the east, with Monte Cassino itself overlooking Highway 6 and blocking the path to Rome.
On 15 February 1944 the abbey was almost completely destroyed in a series of heavy American-led air raids.
The Commander-in-Chief Allied Armies in Italy, General Sir of the British army ordered the bombing.
The bombing was conducted because many reports from the British commanders of the Indian troops on the ground suggested that Germans were occupying the monastery, and it was considered a key observational post by all those who were fighting in the ゲームをオンラインでプレイする />However, during the bombing no Germans were present in the abbey.
Subsequent investigations found that the only people killed in the monastery by the bombing were 230 Italian civilians seeking refuge there.
Following the bombing the ruins of the monastery were occupied by German of thebecause the ruins provided excellent agree, タイタスウォールスロットディフューザー think cover.
A sign featuring the words "Caritas Diocesana di Montecassino" in downtown Cassino, Italy, in February 2013, shortly before its parochial jurisdiction was transferred to the.
The Abbey was rebuilt after the war.
In the early 1950s, President of the Italian Republic gave considerable support to the rebuilding.
During reconstruction, the abbey library was housed at the.
Until his resignation was accepted by on 12 June 2013, the Territorial Abbot of Monte Cassino was.
The Vatican daily bulletin of 23 October 2014 announced that with the appointment of his successor Donato Ogliari, the territory of the abbey outside the immediate monastery grounds had been transferred to the Diocese of Sora-Aquino-Pontecorvo, now renamed Diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo.
Julius Schlegel a Roman Catholic and Capt.
Maximilian Becker a Protestantboth from thehad them transferred to the Vatican at the beginning of the battle.
Another account, however, from Kurowski "The History of the Fallschirmpanzerkorps Hermann Göring: Soldiers of the Reichsmarschall"notes that 120 trucks were loaded with monastic assets and art which had been stored there for safekeeping.
Robert Edsel 2006 is more to the point about German looting.
The trucks were loaded and montecasino com in October 1943, and only "strenuous" protests resulted in their delivery to the Vatican, minus the 15 cases which contained the property of the Capodimonte Museum in Naples.
Edsel goes on to note that these cases had been delivered to Göring in December 1943, for "his birthday.
Salkin; Sharon La Boda, eds.
International Dictionary of Historic Places: Volume 3 Southern Europe.
Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
The Life of Saint Benedict.
Translated by Terrence Kardong, OSB.
Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.
The Life of Saint Benedict.
Translated by Terrence Kardong, OSB.
Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.
The Life of St.
Translated by Hilary Costello and Eoin de Bhaldraithe.
Commentary by Adalbert de Vogüé.
The Age of Faith.
The Age of Faith: A History of Medieval Civilization - Christian, Islamic, and Judaic - from Constantine to Dante: A.
Franco et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus.
Monte Cassino in the Middle Ages.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Retrieved 22 May 2016.
Retrieved 22 May 2016.
Rescuing Da Vinci: Hitler and the Nazis Stole Europe's Great Art, America and Her Allies Recovered It.
The Day of Battle: the War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944.
New York: Henry Holt.
Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura.
Monte Cassino: The Story of the Most Controversial Battle of World War II reprint ed.
La storia attraverso le testimonianze grafiche di rilievo e di progetto.
Cassino, Ciolfi Editore, 2005.
By using this site, you agree to the and.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of thea non-profit organization. montecasino com montecasino com montecasino com montecasino com montecasino com montecasino com

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